This was a first work, where Biological Dynamic's founder were able to demonstrate possibility of no-dilution isolation of nanoparticles from a high conductivity solution using special conditions applied to DEP field.
Krishnan, R. and Heller, M. J. (2009), An AC Electrokinetic Method for Enhanced Detection of DNA Nanoparticles. J. Biophoton., 2: 253–261. doi: 10.1002/jbio.200910007
In biomedical research and diagnostics it is a challenge to isolate and detect low levels of nanoparticles and nanoscale biomarkers in blood and other biological samples. While highly sensitive epifluorescent microscope systems are available for ultra low level detection, the isolation of the specific entities from large sample volumes is often the bigger limitation.
AC electrokinetic techniques like dielectrophoresis (DEP) offer an attractive mechanism for specifically concentrating nanoparticles into microscopic locations. Unfortunately, DEP requires significant sample dilution thus making the technology unsuitable for biological applications. Using a microelectrode array device, special conditions have been found for the separation of hmw-DNA and nanoparticles under high conductance (ionic strength) conditions. At AC frequencies in the 3000-10 000 Hz range, 10 mum microspheres and human T lymphocytes can be isolated into the DEP low field regions, while hmw-DNA and nanoparticles can be concentrated into microscopic high field regions for subsequent detection using an epifluorescent system.